Care-seeking patterns and direct economic burden of injuries in Bangladesh

Natalia Y. Alfonso, Olakunle Alonge, Dewan Md Emdadul Hoque, Kamran Ul Baset, Adnan A. Hyder, David Bishai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This study provides a comprehensive review of the care-seeking patterns and direct economic burden of injuries from the victims’ perspective in rural Bangladesh using a 2013 household survey covering 1.17 million people. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to derive rates and test the association between variables. An analytic model was used to estimate total injury out-of-pocket (OOP) payments and a multivariate probit regression model assessed the relationship between financial distress and injury type. Results show non-fatal injuries occur to 1 in 5 people in our sample per year. With average household size of 4.5 in Bangladesh--every household has an injury every year. Most non-fatally injured patients sought healthcare from drug sellers. Less than half of fatal injuries sought healthcare and half of those with care were hospitalized. Average OOP payments varied significantly (range: $8–$830) by injury type and outcome (fatal vs. non-fatal). Total injury OOP expenditure was $$355,795 and $5000 for non-fatal and fatal injuries, respectively, per 100,000 people. The majority of household heads with injuries reported financial distress. This study can inform injury prevention advocates on disparities in healthcare usage, OOP costs and financial distress. Reallocation of resources to the most at risk populations can accelerate reduction of preventable injuries and prevent injury related catastrophic payments and impoverishment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number472
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017


  • Bangladesh
  • Care-seeking patterns
  • Cost
  • Economic burden
  • Injuries
  • Low-and-middle-income countries
  • Out-of-pocket

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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