Background Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but less is known about how diabetes influences outcomes among AF patients. Objectives This study assessed whether symptoms, health status, care, and outcomes differ between AF patients with and without diabetes. Methods The cohort study included 9,749 patients from the ORBIT-AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation) registry, a prospective, nationwide, outpatient registry of patients with incident and prevalent AF. Outcomes included symptoms, health status, and AF treatment, as well as 2-year risk of death, hospitalization, thromboembolic events, heart failure (HF), and AF progression. Results Patients with diabetes (29.5%) were younger, more likely to have hypertension, chronic kidney disease, HF, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Compared to patients without diabetes, patients with diabetes also had a lower Atrial Fibrillation Effects on Quality of Life score of 80 (interquartile range [IQR]: 62.5 to 92.6) versus 82.4 (IQR: 67.6 to 93.5; p = 0.025) and were more likely to receive anticoagulation (p < 0.001). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality risk, including overall (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 2.56, for age <70 years vs. aHR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.44, for age ≥70 years) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality (aHR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.22 to 3.98, for age <70 years vs. 1.24; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.51 for age ≥70 years). Diabetes conferred a higher risk of non-CV death, sudden cardiac death, hospitalization, CV hospitalization, and non-CV and nonbleeding-related hospitalization, but no increase in risks of thromboembolic events, bleeding-related hospitalization, new-onset HF, and AF progression. Conclusions Among AF patients, diabetes was associated with worse AF symptoms and lower quality of life, and increased risk of death and hospitalizations, but not thromboembolic or bleeding events.
- heart failure
- thromboembolic events
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine