Cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive and hypertensive Egyptians

M. Mohsen Ibrahim, Lawrence Appel, Hussein H. Rizk, Sherif Helmy, Jonathan Mosley, Zeinab Ashour, Wafaa El-Aroussy, Edward Roccella, Paul Whelton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: To define the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to the level of blood pressure, in Egyptians. Methods: Data were collected during the Egyptian National Hypertension project, a national hypertension survey in Egypt. During phase I of the survey, hypertensive (HT) patients were identified. In phase II, clinical and laboratory evaluations were made on HT and gender-matched normotensives (NT). A total of 2313 individuals were examined, 311 NT males, 443 NT females, 670 HT males and 889 HT females. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 33 and 47% in hypertensive men and women, respectively. After adjusting for age, HT men had significantly higher heart rate, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), post-prandial blood sugar (PBS), body mass index and waist/hip (W/H) ratio than their NT counterparts. In addition, HT women had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The prevalence of elevated LDL-C and FBS increased with age. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, elevated FBS and obesity rose with increasing level of blood pressure (BP). From the 25-34 to the 55-64 age group, the percentage of hypertensives with ≥ 2 risk factors rose from 42.9 to 60.6% in men, and from 9.4 to 46.2% in women. All risk factors were more prevalent in urban populations. Conclusion: This is one of the few reports on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a developing country. Risk factors cluster with rising level of BP and with ageing. Obesity is very prevalent, particularly in hypertensive Egyptian women. Health efforts directed at the prevention and treatment of obesity should be a high priority.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1933-1940
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Volume19
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Blood Glucose
Obesity
Fasting
Blood Pressure
LDL Cholesterol
Hypertension
Urban Population
Waist-Hip Ratio
Egypt
Hypertriglyceridemia
HDL Cholesterol
Developing Countries
Meals
Triglycerides
Body Mass Index
Age Groups
Heart Rate
Cholesterol
Health
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Egyptians
  • Hypertension
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Ibrahim, M. M., Appel, L., Rizk, H. H., Helmy, S., Mosley, J., Ashour, Z., ... Whelton, P. (2001). Cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive and hypertensive Egyptians. Journal of Hypertension, 19(11), 1933-1940. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200111000-00002

Cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive and hypertensive Egyptians. / Ibrahim, M. Mohsen; Appel, Lawrence; Rizk, Hussein H.; Helmy, Sherif; Mosley, Jonathan; Ashour, Zeinab; El-Aroussy, Wafaa; Roccella, Edward; Whelton, Paul.

In: Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 19, No. 11, 2001, p. 1933-1940.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ibrahim, MM, Appel, L, Rizk, HH, Helmy, S, Mosley, J, Ashour, Z, El-Aroussy, W, Roccella, E & Whelton, P 2001, 'Cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive and hypertensive Egyptians', Journal of Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1933-1940. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200111000-00002
Ibrahim, M. Mohsen ; Appel, Lawrence ; Rizk, Hussein H. ; Helmy, Sherif ; Mosley, Jonathan ; Ashour, Zeinab ; El-Aroussy, Wafaa ; Roccella, Edward ; Whelton, Paul. / Cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive and hypertensive Egyptians. In: Journal of Hypertension. 2001 ; Vol. 19, No. 11. pp. 1933-1940.
@article{3393008d7b8e4c2fb21024a6d6d2a4f7,
title = "Cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive and hypertensive Egyptians",
abstract = "Objectives: To define the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to the level of blood pressure, in Egyptians. Methods: Data were collected during the Egyptian National Hypertension project, a national hypertension survey in Egypt. During phase I of the survey, hypertensive (HT) patients were identified. In phase II, clinical and laboratory evaluations were made on HT and gender-matched normotensives (NT). A total of 2313 individuals were examined, 311 NT males, 443 NT females, 670 HT males and 889 HT females. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 33 and 47{\%} in hypertensive men and women, respectively. After adjusting for age, HT men had significantly higher heart rate, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), post-prandial blood sugar (PBS), body mass index and waist/hip (W/H) ratio than their NT counterparts. In addition, HT women had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The prevalence of elevated LDL-C and FBS increased with age. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, elevated FBS and obesity rose with increasing level of blood pressure (BP). From the 25-34 to the 55-64 age group, the percentage of hypertensives with ≥ 2 risk factors rose from 42.9 to 60.6{\%} in men, and from 9.4 to 46.2{\%} in women. All risk factors were more prevalent in urban populations. Conclusion: This is one of the few reports on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a developing country. Risk factors cluster with rising level of BP and with ageing. Obesity is very prevalent, particularly in hypertensive Egyptian women. Health efforts directed at the prevention and treatment of obesity should be a high priority.",
keywords = "Egyptians, Hypertension, Risk factors",
author = "Ibrahim, {M. Mohsen} and Lawrence Appel and Rizk, {Hussein H.} and Sherif Helmy and Jonathan Mosley and Zeinab Ashour and Wafaa El-Aroussy and Edward Roccella and Paul Whelton",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1097/00004872-200111000-00002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "19",
pages = "1933--1940",
journal = "Journal of Hypertension",
issn = "0263-6352",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive and hypertensive Egyptians

AU - Ibrahim, M. Mohsen

AU - Appel, Lawrence

AU - Rizk, Hussein H.

AU - Helmy, Sherif

AU - Mosley, Jonathan

AU - Ashour, Zeinab

AU - El-Aroussy, Wafaa

AU - Roccella, Edward

AU - Whelton, Paul

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Objectives: To define the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to the level of blood pressure, in Egyptians. Methods: Data were collected during the Egyptian National Hypertension project, a national hypertension survey in Egypt. During phase I of the survey, hypertensive (HT) patients were identified. In phase II, clinical and laboratory evaluations were made on HT and gender-matched normotensives (NT). A total of 2313 individuals were examined, 311 NT males, 443 NT females, 670 HT males and 889 HT females. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 33 and 47% in hypertensive men and women, respectively. After adjusting for age, HT men had significantly higher heart rate, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), post-prandial blood sugar (PBS), body mass index and waist/hip (W/H) ratio than their NT counterparts. In addition, HT women had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The prevalence of elevated LDL-C and FBS increased with age. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, elevated FBS and obesity rose with increasing level of blood pressure (BP). From the 25-34 to the 55-64 age group, the percentage of hypertensives with ≥ 2 risk factors rose from 42.9 to 60.6% in men, and from 9.4 to 46.2% in women. All risk factors were more prevalent in urban populations. Conclusion: This is one of the few reports on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a developing country. Risk factors cluster with rising level of BP and with ageing. Obesity is very prevalent, particularly in hypertensive Egyptian women. Health efforts directed at the prevention and treatment of obesity should be a high priority.

AB - Objectives: To define the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to the level of blood pressure, in Egyptians. Methods: Data were collected during the Egyptian National Hypertension project, a national hypertension survey in Egypt. During phase I of the survey, hypertensive (HT) patients were identified. In phase II, clinical and laboratory evaluations were made on HT and gender-matched normotensives (NT). A total of 2313 individuals were examined, 311 NT males, 443 NT females, 670 HT males and 889 HT females. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 33 and 47% in hypertensive men and women, respectively. After adjusting for age, HT men had significantly higher heart rate, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), post-prandial blood sugar (PBS), body mass index and waist/hip (W/H) ratio than their NT counterparts. In addition, HT women had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The prevalence of elevated LDL-C and FBS increased with age. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, elevated FBS and obesity rose with increasing level of blood pressure (BP). From the 25-34 to the 55-64 age group, the percentage of hypertensives with ≥ 2 risk factors rose from 42.9 to 60.6% in men, and from 9.4 to 46.2% in women. All risk factors were more prevalent in urban populations. Conclusion: This is one of the few reports on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a developing country. Risk factors cluster with rising level of BP and with ageing. Obesity is very prevalent, particularly in hypertensive Egyptian women. Health efforts directed at the prevention and treatment of obesity should be a high priority.

KW - Egyptians

KW - Hypertension

KW - Risk factors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034766740&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034766740&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/00004872-200111000-00002

DO - 10.1097/00004872-200111000-00002

M3 - Article

C2 - 11677357

AN - SCOPUS:0034766740

VL - 19

SP - 1933

EP - 1940

JO - Journal of Hypertension

JF - Journal of Hypertension

SN - 0263-6352

IS - 11

ER -