Dogs were chronically instrumented to measure aortic and left atrial blood pressures, left ventricular maximal rate of tension development (dP/dt), cardiac output, and carotid, coronary and renal blood flows. Measurements were taken with the animals awake and during steady-state low and high concentrations of halothane (1.2%, 2.4%), enflurane (2.4%, 4.0%), and isoflurane (1.6%, 3.0%) with and without at least 2 weeks of oral verapamil, 120 mg, three times per day. Plasma verapamil levels varied widely, with means of 500-700 ng·ml-1 in awake animals and lower (300-400 ng·ml-1) at the time of hemodynamic measurements during anesthesia. Chronic oral verapamil in awake dogs produced predominantly tachycardia. The hemodynamic effects of low-dose halothane and isoflurane before and after oral verapamil were unchanged except for decreased renal blood flow after oral verapamil and no coronary vasodilation nor tachycardia. However, left atrial pressure was increased and cardiac output and coronary blood flow were decreased by low concentrations of enflurane with oral verapamil compared to without. The combination of oral verapamil with low (clinical) doses of enflurane was more depressant to the cardiovascular system of healthy dogs than was the combination of verapamil and halothane or isoflurane.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine