Introduction Various phenotypes of overweight and obesity pose various health risks. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of 4 commonly measured cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs) among adults with overweight or obesity, but not diabetes, at the time of the study. Methods We analyzed data for 1,294,174 adults (aged ≥20 y) who were members of one of 4 integrated health systems. Each cohort member had a body mass index in 2012 or 2013 that indicated overweight or obesity. We determined the presence of 4 CRFs within 1 year of the first BMI measurement: elevated blood pressure (systolic ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic > 85 mm Hg or ICD-9-CM [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification] diagnosis code 401.0-405.9); elevated triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL or ICD-9-CM 272.1); low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( < 40 mg/dL for men or < 50 mg/dL for women or ICD- 9-CM 272.5); and prediabetes (fasting glucose 100-125 mg/dL or HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% or ICD-9-CM 790.2x). We tested the risk of having 1 or more CRFs after adjusting for obesity class and demographic characteristics with multivariable logistic regression. Results Among participants with overweight (52.5% of the sample), 18.6% had none of the 4 CRFs. Among the 47.5% of participants with obesity, 9.6% had none; among participants with morbid obesity, 5.8% had none. Age was strongly associated with CRFs in multivariable analysis. Conclusion Almost 10% of participants with obesity had no CRFs. Overweight or obesity increases cardiometabolic risk, but the number and type of CRFs varied substantially by age, even among participants with morbid obesity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Policy
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health