A Markov model of the cardiac sodium channel is presented. The model is similar to the CA1 hippocampal neuron sodium channel model developed by Kuo and Bean (1994. Neuron. 12:819-829) with the following modifications: 1) an additional open state is added; 2) open-inactivated transitions are made voltage-dependent; and 3) channel rate constants are exponential functions of enthalpy, entropy, and voltage and have explicit temperature dependence. Model parameters are determined using a simulated annealing algorithm to minimize the error between model responses and various experimental data sets. The model reproduces a wide range of experimental data including ionic currents, gating currents, tail currents, steady-state inactivation, recovery from inactivation, and open time distributions over a temperature range of 10°C to 25°C. The model also predicts measures of single channel activity such as first latency, probability of a null sweep, and probability of reopening.
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