Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types, disease states, protein functions, and developmental states. Carbohydrate "binders" that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents. In this review, we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Examples are arranged based on disease categories including (1) infectious diseases, (2) cancer, (3) inflammation and immune responses, (4) signal transduction, (5) stem cell transformation, (6) embryo development, and (7) cardiovascular diseases, though some issues cross therapeutic boundaries.
- Imaging agents
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