HIV-associated neurologic disorders are a mounting problem despite the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. To address mechanisms of HIV-associated neurologic disorders, we used an SIV pigtailed macaque model to study innate immune responses in brain that suppress viral replication during acute infection. We previously reported that during acute infection in brain, noncanonical type I IFN signaling occurs, where IFN-β mRNA is induced while IFN-α is simultaneously suppressed. Two downstream IFN-stimulated genes, MxA and TRAIL, also show differential expression patterns. In this study, we show that differential signaling is due to interactions between macrophages and astrocytes. Astrocytes produce high levels of CCL2 upon SIV infection, which binds to CCR2 receptors on macrophages, leading to a selective suppression of IFN-α and the IFN-stimulated gene TRAIL while simultaneously inducing IFN-β and MxA. The interactions between chemokine and cytokine pathways are a novel finding that may specifically occur in the CNS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy