Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a critical immunoregulatory molecule (expressed on activated T cells and a subset of regulatory T cells) capable of down-regulating T cell activation. Blockade of CTLA-4 has been shown in animal models to improve the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy. We thus treated 14 patients with metastatic melanoma by using serial i.v. administration of a fully human anti-CTLA-4 antibody (MDX-010) in conjunction with s.c. vaccination with two modified HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides from the gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, gp100:209-217(210M) and gp100:280-288(288V). This blockade of CTLA-4 induced grade III/IV autoimmune manifestations in six patients (43%), including dermatitis, enterocolitis, hepatitis, and hypophysitis, and mediated objective cancer regression in three patients (21%; two complete and one partial responses). This study establishes CTLA-4 as an important molecule regulating tolerance to "self" antigens in humans and suggests a role for CTLA-4 blockade in breaking tolerance to human cancer antigens for cancer immunotherapy.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Jul 8 2003|
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