Cancer immunotherapy is changing the imaging evaluation of cancer treatment response and treatment-related toxic effects. New emerging patterns of treatment response and treatment-related toxic effects after treatment with immunomodulating agents have been observed. Treatment response after immunomodulatory therapy can be associated with significantly delayed decrease in tumor size, and new or enlarging tumors observed soon after completion of treatment may not reflect disease progression. In addition, activation of the immune system to fight cancer may lead to unwanted autoimmune-mediated toxic effects that could be mistaken for metastatic disease or misdiagnosed as a non–treatment-related process and delay appropriate clinical management. Radiologists must recognize the novel treatment response patterns and the wide range of autoimmune toxic effects, which should not be mistaken for treatment failure or metastatic disease progression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging