On the basis of strong evidence, Campylobacter is a common cause of acute diarrhea throughout the world, and Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly isolated Campylobacter species. (1) • On the basis of strong evidence, most Campylobacter infections result in a mild, self-limited enteritis, but Campylobacter can also cause invasive disease, including bacteremia. Campylobacter is also the most commonly identified cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome and can cause reactive arthritis. • Based on strong clinical evidence, stool culture remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of Campylobacter infection, but culture-independent diagnostic testing is also sensitive. On the basis of consensus, species-level identification of Campylobacter isolates is usually not necessary for clinical management. • Campylobacter is a nationally notifiable disease. Any confirmed cases should be reported through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network. • Based on strong evidence, antibiotic treatment of Campylobacter infections results in a modest reduction of duration of infection (1 day) and a reduced duration of shedding. However, based on consensus, treatment is not recommended for uncomplicated infection in immunocompetent hosts due to the mild nature of infection, modest benefit, and risk of development of antibiotic resistance. Treatment with azithromycin or erythromycin is recommended for severe infections or infections in immunocompromised hosts. • Based on an abundance of evidence, important practices for the prevention of Campylobacter infection are thoroughly cooking poultry, avoiding cross-contamination between poultry and other foods, chlorination of water, pasteurization of milk, and observation of hand hygiene after contact with animals and their feces.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health