Calcium alginate gel as a biocompatible material for endovascular arteriovenous malformation embolization: Six-month results in an animal model

Timothy A. Becker, Mark C. Preul, William D. Bichard, Daryl R. Kipke, Cameron G. McDougall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We sought to expand our assessment of calcium alginate as an embolic agent in an animal model of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The objective of this study was to assess the long-term biocompatibility and stability of calcium alginate in AVM swine models that survived from 1 to 6 months. METHODS: The swine model included a carotid-jugular anastomosis to redirect flow to the rete mirabile (RM), thereby simulating flow to an AVM. Alginate and the reactive component, calcium chloride, were injected from double-lumen or concentric-tube microcatheters to form an occlusion of the RM feeding vessel and the inferior portion of the RM. RESULTS: Angiography and histology verified complete occlusion of the RM feeding vessel for up to 6 months in eight of nine swine. Blood flow remained open to the superior portion of the RM and the circle of Willis. No evidence of downstream calcium alginate gel was seen in the follow-up angiograms or the histological preparations of the circle of Willis. A minor bioactive response to the alginate gel was noted at 1 month, yet no degenerative or inflammatory response was seen. At 6 months, there was moderate fibrous tissue around the alginate, which further sealed off flow to the embolized areas of the RM. CONCLUSION: Over a period of 6 months, calcium alginate was an effective endovascular occlusion material that blocked blood flow to the inferior portion of the RM. The chronic AVM model verified the long-term stability and biocompatibility of calcium alginate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)793-800
Number of pages8
JournalNeurosurgery
Volume56
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biocompatible hydrogel
  • Calcium alginate
  • Cerebral arteriovenous malformation
  • Embolization
  • Endovascular occlusion
  • Microcatheter injection
  • Rete mirabile

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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