Mounting evidence supports that cadmium, a toxic metal found in tobacco, air and food, is a cardiovascular risk factor. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease. Twelve studies were identified. Overall, the pooled relative risks (95 % confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were: 1.36 (95 % CI: 1.11, 1.66), 1.30 (95 % CI: 1.12, 1.52), 1.18 (95 % CI: 0.86, 1.59), and 1.49 (95 % CI: 1.15, 1.92), respectively. The pooled relative risks for cardiovascular disease in men, women and never smokers were 1.29 (1.12, 1.48), 1.20 (0.92, 1.56) and 1.27 (0.97, 1.67), respectively. Together with experimental evidence, our review supports the association between cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease, especially for coronary heart disease. The number of studies with stroke, heart failure (HF) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) endpoints was small. More studies, especially studies evaluating incident endpoints, are needed.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Systematic review
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine