Aberrant type 2 responses underlie the pathologies in allergic diseases like asthma, yet, our understanding of the mechanisms that drive them remains limited. Recent evidence suggests that dysregulated innate immune factors can perpetuate asthma pathogenesis. In susceptible individuals, allergen exposure triggers the activation of complement, a major arm of innate immunity, leading to the aberrant generation of the C3a anaphylatoxin. C3 and C3a have been shown to be important for the development of Th2 responses, yet remarkably, the mechanisms by which C3a regulates type 2 immunity are relatively unknown. We demonstrate a central role for C3a in driving type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2)-mediated inflammation in response to allergen and IL-33. Our data suggests that ILC2 recruitment is C3a-dependent. Further, we show that ILC2s directly respond to C3a, promoting type 2 responses by specifically: (1) inducing IL-13 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, whereas inhibiting IL-10 production from ILC2; and (2) enhancing their antigen-presenting capability during ILC-T-cell cross-talk. In summary, we identify a novel mechanism by which C3a can mediate aberrant type 2 responses to aeroallergen exposure, which involves a yet unrecognized cross-talk between two major innate immune components—complement and group 2 innate lymphoid cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy