C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are associated with risk of tuberculosis after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings

ACTG PEARLS, ACTG PEARLS and NWCS 31 Study Group

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Abstract

Objective The association between pre-antiretroviral (ART) inflammation and immune activation and risk for incident tuberculosis (TB) after ART initiation among adults is uncertain. Design Nested case-control study (n = 332) within ACTG PEARLS trial of three ART regimens among 1571 HIV-infected, treatment-naïve adults in 9 countries. We compared cases (participants with incident TB diagnosed by 96 weeks) to a random sample of controls (participants who did not develop TB, stratified by country and treatment arm). Methods We measured pre-ART C-reactive protein (CRP), EndoCab IgM, ferritin, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CD4/DR+/38+ and CD8/DR+/38+ T cells. Markers were defined according to established cutoff definitions when available, 75th percentile of measured values when not, and detectable versus undetectable for LPS. Using logistic regression, we measured associations between biomarkers and incident TB, adjusting for age, sex, study site, treatment arm, baseline CD4 and log10 viral load. We assessed the discriminatory value of biomarkers using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Seventy-seven persons (4.9%) developed incident TB during follow-up. Elevated baseline CRP (aOR 3.25, 95% CI: 1.55-6.81) and IP-10 (aOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.05-3.39), detectable plasma LPS (aOR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.13-5.06), and the established TB risk factors anemia and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with incident TB. In ROC analysis, CRP, albumin, and LPS improved discrimination only modestly for TB risk when added to baseline routine patient characteristics including CD4 count, body mass index, and prior TB. Conclusion Incident TB occurs commonly after ART initiation. Although associated with higher post-ART TB risk, baseline CRP, IP-10, and LPS add limited value to routine patient characteristics in discriminating who develops active TB. Besides determining ideal cutoffs for these biomarkers, additional biomarkers should be sought that predict TB disease in ART initiators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0117424
JournalPLoS One
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 26 2015

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Chemokine CXCL10
C-reactive protein
tuberculosis
C-Reactive Protein
lipopolysaccharides
Interferon-gamma
Lipopolysaccharides
Biomarkers
Tuberculosis
therapeutics
Proteins
Therapeutics
biomarkers
T-cells
Ferritins
Immunoglobulin M
Logistics
Albumins
Interleukin-6
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

@article{03a8ad646d9644288ddc93fcecdb0090,
title = "C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are associated with risk of tuberculosis after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings",
abstract = "Objective The association between pre-antiretroviral (ART) inflammation and immune activation and risk for incident tuberculosis (TB) after ART initiation among adults is uncertain. Design Nested case-control study (n = 332) within ACTG PEARLS trial of three ART regimens among 1571 HIV-infected, treatment-na{\"i}ve adults in 9 countries. We compared cases (participants with incident TB diagnosed by 96 weeks) to a random sample of controls (participants who did not develop TB, stratified by country and treatment arm). Methods We measured pre-ART C-reactive protein (CRP), EndoCab IgM, ferritin, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CD4/DR+/38+ and CD8/DR+/38+ T cells. Markers were defined according to established cutoff definitions when available, 75th percentile of measured values when not, and detectable versus undetectable for LPS. Using logistic regression, we measured associations between biomarkers and incident TB, adjusting for age, sex, study site, treatment arm, baseline CD4 and log10 viral load. We assessed the discriminatory value of biomarkers using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Seventy-seven persons (4.9{\%}) developed incident TB during follow-up. Elevated baseline CRP (aOR 3.25, 95{\%} CI: 1.55-6.81) and IP-10 (aOR 1.89, 95{\%} CI: 1.05-3.39), detectable plasma LPS (aOR 2.39, 95{\%} CI: 1.13-5.06), and the established TB risk factors anemia and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with incident TB. In ROC analysis, CRP, albumin, and LPS improved discrimination only modestly for TB risk when added to baseline routine patient characteristics including CD4 count, body mass index, and prior TB. Conclusion Incident TB occurs commonly after ART initiation. Although associated with higher post-ART TB risk, baseline CRP, IP-10, and LPS add limited value to routine patient characteristics in discriminating who develops active TB. Besides determining ideal cutoffs for these biomarkers, additional biomarkers should be sought that predict TB disease in ART initiators.",
author = "{ACTG PEARLS} and {ACTG PEARLS and NWCS 31 Study Group} and Tenforde, {Mark W.} and Nikhil Gupte and Dowdy, {David Wesley} and Asmuth, {David M.} and Ashwin Balagopal and Pollard, {Richard B.} and Patcharaphan Sugandhavesa and Lama, {Javier R.} and Sandy Pillay and Cardoso, {Sandra W.} and Jyoti Pawar and Breno Santos and Cynthia Riviere and Noluthando Mwelase and Cecilia Kanyama and Johnstone Kumwenda and Hakim, {James G.} and Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy and Bollinger, {Robert C} and Semba, {Richard David} and Campbell, {Thomas B.} and Amita Gupta",
year = "2015",
month = "2",
day = "26",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0117424",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "10",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are associated with risk of tuberculosis after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings

AU - ACTG PEARLS

AU - ACTG PEARLS and NWCS 31 Study Group

AU - Tenforde, Mark W.

AU - Gupte, Nikhil

AU - Dowdy, David Wesley

AU - Asmuth, David M.

AU - Balagopal, Ashwin

AU - Pollard, Richard B.

AU - Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan

AU - Lama, Javier R.

AU - Pillay, Sandy

AU - Cardoso, Sandra W.

AU - Pawar, Jyoti

AU - Santos, Breno

AU - Riviere, Cynthia

AU - Mwelase, Noluthando

AU - Kanyama, Cecilia

AU - Kumwenda, Johnstone

AU - Hakim, James G.

AU - Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran

AU - Bollinger, Robert C

AU - Semba, Richard David

AU - Campbell, Thomas B.

AU - Gupta, Amita

PY - 2015/2/26

Y1 - 2015/2/26

N2 - Objective The association between pre-antiretroviral (ART) inflammation and immune activation and risk for incident tuberculosis (TB) after ART initiation among adults is uncertain. Design Nested case-control study (n = 332) within ACTG PEARLS trial of three ART regimens among 1571 HIV-infected, treatment-naïve adults in 9 countries. We compared cases (participants with incident TB diagnosed by 96 weeks) to a random sample of controls (participants who did not develop TB, stratified by country and treatment arm). Methods We measured pre-ART C-reactive protein (CRP), EndoCab IgM, ferritin, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CD4/DR+/38+ and CD8/DR+/38+ T cells. Markers were defined according to established cutoff definitions when available, 75th percentile of measured values when not, and detectable versus undetectable for LPS. Using logistic regression, we measured associations between biomarkers and incident TB, adjusting for age, sex, study site, treatment arm, baseline CD4 and log10 viral load. We assessed the discriminatory value of biomarkers using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Seventy-seven persons (4.9%) developed incident TB during follow-up. Elevated baseline CRP (aOR 3.25, 95% CI: 1.55-6.81) and IP-10 (aOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.05-3.39), detectable plasma LPS (aOR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.13-5.06), and the established TB risk factors anemia and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with incident TB. In ROC analysis, CRP, albumin, and LPS improved discrimination only modestly for TB risk when added to baseline routine patient characteristics including CD4 count, body mass index, and prior TB. Conclusion Incident TB occurs commonly after ART initiation. Although associated with higher post-ART TB risk, baseline CRP, IP-10, and LPS add limited value to routine patient characteristics in discriminating who develops active TB. Besides determining ideal cutoffs for these biomarkers, additional biomarkers should be sought that predict TB disease in ART initiators.

AB - Objective The association between pre-antiretroviral (ART) inflammation and immune activation and risk for incident tuberculosis (TB) after ART initiation among adults is uncertain. Design Nested case-control study (n = 332) within ACTG PEARLS trial of three ART regimens among 1571 HIV-infected, treatment-naïve adults in 9 countries. We compared cases (participants with incident TB diagnosed by 96 weeks) to a random sample of controls (participants who did not develop TB, stratified by country and treatment arm). Methods We measured pre-ART C-reactive protein (CRP), EndoCab IgM, ferritin, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CD4/DR+/38+ and CD8/DR+/38+ T cells. Markers were defined according to established cutoff definitions when available, 75th percentile of measured values when not, and detectable versus undetectable for LPS. Using logistic regression, we measured associations between biomarkers and incident TB, adjusting for age, sex, study site, treatment arm, baseline CD4 and log10 viral load. We assessed the discriminatory value of biomarkers using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Seventy-seven persons (4.9%) developed incident TB during follow-up. Elevated baseline CRP (aOR 3.25, 95% CI: 1.55-6.81) and IP-10 (aOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.05-3.39), detectable plasma LPS (aOR 2.39, 95% CI: 1.13-5.06), and the established TB risk factors anemia and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with incident TB. In ROC analysis, CRP, albumin, and LPS improved discrimination only modestly for TB risk when added to baseline routine patient characteristics including CD4 count, body mass index, and prior TB. Conclusion Incident TB occurs commonly after ART initiation. Although associated with higher post-ART TB risk, baseline CRP, IP-10, and LPS add limited value to routine patient characteristics in discriminating who develops active TB. Besides determining ideal cutoffs for these biomarkers, additional biomarkers should be sought that predict TB disease in ART initiators.

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U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0117424

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0117424

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VL - 10

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

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