Butyrate greatly enhances derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells by promoting epigenetic remodeling and the expression of pluripotency-associated genes

Prashant Mali, Bin Kuan Chou, Jonathan Yen, Zhaohui Ye, Jizhong Zou, Sarah Dowey, Robert A. Brodsky, Joyce E. Ohm, Wayne Yu, Stephen B. Baylin, Kosuke Yusa, Allan Bradley, David J. Meyers, Chandrani Mukherjee, Philip A. Cole, Linzhao Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We report here that butyrate, a naturally occurring fatty acid commonly used as a nutritional supplement and differentiation agent, greatly enhances the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derivation from human adult or fetal fibroblasts. After transient butyrate treatment, the iPS cell derivation efficiency is enhanced by 15-to 51-fold using either retroviral or piggyBac transposon vectors expressing 4 to 5 reprogramming genes. Butyrate stimulation is more remarkable (>100- to 200-fold) on reprogramming in the absence of either KLF4 or MYC transgene. Butyrate treatment did not negatively affect properties of iPS cell lines established by either 3 or 4 retroviral vectors or a single piggyBac DNA transposon vector. These characterized iPS cell lines, including those derived from an adult patient with sickle cell disease by either the piggyBac or retroviral vectors, show normal karyotypes and pluripotency. To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of butyrate stimulation, we conducted genome-wide gene expression and promoter DNA methylation microarrays and other epigenetic analyses on established iPS cells and cells from intermediate stages of the reprogramming process. By days 6 to 12 during reprogramming, butyrate treatment enhanced histone H3 acetylation, promoter DNA demethylation, and the expression of endogenous pluripotency-associated genes, including DPPA2, whose overexpression partially substitutes for butyrate stimulation. Thus, butyrate as a cell permeable small molecule provides a simple tool to further investigate molecular mechanisms of cellular reprogramming. Moreover, butyrate stimulation provides an efficient method for reprogramming various human adult somatic cells, including cells from patients that are more refractory to reprogramming.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-720
Number of pages8
JournalStem Cells
Volume28
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2010

Keywords

  • Induced pluripotent stem cells
  • Reprogramming
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Sodium butyrate
  • piggyBac DNA transposition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

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