Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in a densely populated urban community, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Aliya Naheed, Pavani K. Ram, W. Abdullah Brooks, M. Anowar Hossain, Michele B. Parsons, Kaisar Ali Talukder, Eric Mintz, Stephen Luby, Robert F. Breiman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: We conducted blood culture surveillance to estimate the incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever among urban slum residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: Between January 7, 2003 and January 6, 2004, participants were visited weekly to detect febrile illnesses. Blood cultures were obtained at the clinic from patients with fever (≥38 °C). Salmonella isolates were assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Forty Salmonella Typhi and eight Salmonella Paratyphi A were isolated from 961 blood cultures. The incidence of typhoid fever was 2.0 episodes/1000 person-years, with a higher incidence in children aged < 5 years (10.5/1000 person-years) than in older persons (0.9/1000 person-years) (relative risk. = 12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.3-22.6). The incidence of paratyphoid fever was 0.4/1000 person-years without variation by age group. Sixteen S. Typhi isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). All S. Paratyphi isolates were pan-susceptible. The duration of fever among patients with an MDR S. Typhi infection was longer than among patients with non-MDR S. Typhi (16 ± 8 vs. 11 ± 4 days, p= 0.02) and S. Paratyphi (10 ± 2 days, p= 0.04) infections. Conclusions: Typhoid fever is more common than paratyphoid fever in the urban Bangladeshi slum; children < 5 years old have the highest incidence. Multidrug resistance is common in S. Typhi isolates and is associated with prolonged illness. Strategies for typhoid fever prevention in children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh, including immunization, are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e93-e99
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
StatePublished - Sep 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Bangladesh
  • Burden
  • Typhoid and paratyphoid fever
  • Urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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