Background: Data on rates of heart failure (HF) hospitalizations, recurrent hospitalizations, and outcomes related to HF hospitalizations in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited. Objectives: This study examined rates of HF hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations within a large CKD population and evaluated the burden of HF hospitalizations with the risk of subsequent CKD progression and death. Methods: The prospective CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) study measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at baseline. The crude rates and rate ratios of HF hospitalizations and 30-day HF re-hospitalizations were calculated using Poisson regression models. Cox regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of HF hospitalizations within the first 2 years of follow-up with risk of subsequent CKD progression and death. Results: Among 3,791 participants, the crude rate of HF admissions was 5.8 per 100 person-years (with higher rates of HF with preserved ejection fraction vs. HF with reduced ejection fraction). The adjusted rate of HF was higher with a lower eGFR (vs. eGFR >45 ml/min/1.73 m2); the rate ratios were 1.7 and 2.2 for eGFR 30 to 44 and <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 (vs. >45 ml/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Similarly, the adjusted rates of HF hospitalization were significantly higher in those with higher urine ACR (vs. urine ACR <30 mg/g); the rate ratios were 1.9 and 2.6 for urine ACR 30 to 299 and ≥300 mg/g, respectively. Overall, 20.6% of participants had a subsequent HF re-admission within 30 days. HF hospitalization within 2 years of study entry was associated with greater adjusted risks for CKD progression (1 hospitalization: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 to 2.67; 2+ hospitalizations: HR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.30 to 3.54) and all-cause death (1 hospitalization: HR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.71 to 2.84; 2+ hospitalizations: HR: 3.06; 95% CI: 2.23 to 4.18). Conclusions: Within a large U.S. CKD population, the rates of HF hospitalizations and re-hospitalization were high, with even higher rates across categories of lower eGFR and higher urine ACR. Patients with CKD hospitalized with HF had greater risks of CKD progression and death. HF prevention and treatment should be a public health priority to improve CKD outcomes.
- chronic kidney disease
- end-stage renal-disease
- heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine