Christopher B Ruff, Evan Garofalo, Sirpa Niinimäki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter includes analyses of skeletal samples from Great Britain, although virtually all of the specimens originate from within present-day England only. In addition to the skeletal samples, stature and body mass data for a number of living British anthropometric samples were gleaned from the literature, to serve as very recent comparisons. In most temporal periods and for most cross-sectional properties, British samples do not depart significantly from non-British European samples. The most apparent temporal trend in bone strength among the British samples is a decline in size-standardized bending strength of the tibia after the Neolithic. Among British samples, body size increases from the early Neolithic to the Eneolithic/early Bronze Age, and then declines through the Early Modern period. These trends may track changes in nutrition and living conditions, which may have improved with the Secondary Products Revolution in the late Neolithic and then gradually deteriorated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSkeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans
Subtitle of host publicationUpper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century
Number of pages32
ISBN (Electronic)9781118628430
ISBN (Print)9781118627969
StatePublished - Dec 19 2017


  • British anthropometric samples
  • British skeletal samples
  • Early Modern period
  • Human body mass data
  • Human body size
  • Human bone cross-sectional parameters
  • Stature data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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