Breast milk and energy intake in exclusively, predominantly, and partially breast-fed infants

H. Haisma, W. A. Coward, E. Albernaz, G. H. Visser, J. C K Wells, A. Wright, C. G. Victora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based study in urban Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Subjects: A total of 70 infants aged 4 months recruited at birth. Main outcome measures: Breast milk intake measured using a 'dose-to-the-mother' deuterium-oxide turnover method; feeding pattern and macronutrient intake assessed using a frequency questionnaire. Results: Adjusted mean breast milk intakes were not different between EBF and PBF (EBF, 806 g/day vs PBF, 778 g/day, P=0.59). The difference between EBF and PartBF was significant (PartBF, 603 g/day, P=0.004). Mean intakes of water from supplements were 10 g/day (EBF), 134 g/day (PBF) and 395 g/day (PartBF). Compared to EBF these differences were significant (EBF vs PBF, P=0.005; EBF vs PartBF, P

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1633-1642
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Breast milk intake
  • Deuterium-oxide
  • Energy intake
  • Turnover method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science


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