Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

Johanna J C Romulus-Nieuwelink, Colleen Doak, Elaine Albernaz, Cesar G. Victora, Hinke Haisma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast milk and complementary food intake were compared between 8-month-old infants from high (n=35) and low SES (n=30). Breast milk intake was measured using the 'dose-to-the mother' deuterium-oxide turnover method; complementary food intake was assessed using a questionnaire and by 24 hours food weighing. Results. Energy intake from breast milk (51.1±26.4 kcal/kg/d) was not different between social groups, being in line with current recommendations. However, energy intake from complementary foods (34.5±22.7 kcal/kg/d) and from milk, including breast milk, cow's milk and formula (60.1±19.6 kcal/kg/d), were significantly higher than recommendations. Total energy intake was 20% higher than recommended (93.3±24.4 versus 77.3 kcal/kg/day, p

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Pediatric Obesity
Issue number2 -2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes



  • Breast milk intake
  • Breast-feeding
  • Complementary feeding
  • Cross-sectional study
  • Infant
  • Social class

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health Policy
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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