Brain Stem Catecholamine Mechanisms in Tonic and Reflex Control of Blood Pressure

Donald J. Reis, Antonio R. Granata, Tong H. Joh, Christopher A Ross, David A. Ruggiero, Dong H. Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Neurons of the lower brain stem maintain resting levels of arterial pressure (AP), mediate reflex responses from cardiopulmonary receptors, and are an important site of the hypotensive actions of a2-adrenergic agonists. Details of the pathways and transmitters that mediate tonic and reflex control of AP are emerging. Afferent fibers of cardiopulmonary receptors in the ninth and tenth nerves terminate bilaterally in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). Although some neurons contain substance P, the primary neurotransmitter appears to be the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate (L-glu). Neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla, which most probably comprise the Cl group of epinephrine neurons, are also critical in AP control. Cl neurons project to innervate cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord. Stimulation of the Cl area electrically or with L-glu increases AP, while lesions or local injection of the inhibitory amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) lowers AP to levels comparable to spinal cord transection. Lesions of Cl neurons or their pathways abolish vasodepressor reflexes from baroreceptors and vagal afferents. In contrast, noradrenergic neurons of the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the Al group, project rostrally to innervate, in part, vasopressin neurons of the hypothalamus. Stimulation of Al neurons lowers AP, while lesions or GABA elevates it. We propose that Cl neurons comprise the so-called tonic vasomotor center of the brain stem and also mediate, via a projection from the NTS, the vasodepressor limb of baroreflexes. The NTS-C1 projection may be GABAergic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-15
Number of pages9
JournalHypertension
Volume6
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1984
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Brain Stem
Catecholamines
Reflex
Blood Pressure
Neurons
Arterial Pressure
Solitary Nucleus
Baroreflex
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Glutamic Acid
Adrenergic Neurons
Adrenergic Agonists
Excitatory Amino Acids
Substance P
Vasopressins
Spinal Cord Injuries
Cholinergic Agents
Epinephrine
Hypothalamus
Neurotransmitter Agents

Keywords

  • Adrenaline neurons
  • Adrenergic
  • Baroreceptor reflexes
  • Blood pressure
  • Noradrenergic neurons
  • Nucleus of the tractus solitaries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Reis, D. J., Granata, A. R., Joh, T. H., Ross, C. A., Ruggiero, D. A., & Park, D. H. (1984). Brain Stem Catecholamine Mechanisms in Tonic and Reflex Control of Blood Pressure. Hypertension, 6(5), 7-15.

Brain Stem Catecholamine Mechanisms in Tonic and Reflex Control of Blood Pressure. / Reis, Donald J.; Granata, Antonio R.; Joh, Tong H.; Ross, Christopher A; Ruggiero, David A.; Park, Dong H.

In: Hypertension, Vol. 6, No. 5, 1984, p. 7-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reis, DJ, Granata, AR, Joh, TH, Ross, CA, Ruggiero, DA & Park, DH 1984, 'Brain Stem Catecholamine Mechanisms in Tonic and Reflex Control of Blood Pressure', Hypertension, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 7-15.
Reis DJ, Granata AR, Joh TH, Ross CA, Ruggiero DA, Park DH. Brain Stem Catecholamine Mechanisms in Tonic and Reflex Control of Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 1984;6(5):7-15.
Reis, Donald J. ; Granata, Antonio R. ; Joh, Tong H. ; Ross, Christopher A ; Ruggiero, David A. ; Park, Dong H. / Brain Stem Catecholamine Mechanisms in Tonic and Reflex Control of Blood Pressure. In: Hypertension. 1984 ; Vol. 6, No. 5. pp. 7-15.
@article{7677867733d84426b6055db641f4eb90,
title = "Brain Stem Catecholamine Mechanisms in Tonic and Reflex Control of Blood Pressure",
abstract = "Neurons of the lower brain stem maintain resting levels of arterial pressure (AP), mediate reflex responses from cardiopulmonary receptors, and are an important site of the hypotensive actions of a2-adrenergic agonists. Details of the pathways and transmitters that mediate tonic and reflex control of AP are emerging. Afferent fibers of cardiopulmonary receptors in the ninth and tenth nerves terminate bilaterally in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). Although some neurons contain substance P, the primary neurotransmitter appears to be the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate (L-glu). Neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla, which most probably comprise the Cl group of epinephrine neurons, are also critical in AP control. Cl neurons project to innervate cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord. Stimulation of the Cl area electrically or with L-glu increases AP, while lesions or local injection of the inhibitory amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) lowers AP to levels comparable to spinal cord transection. Lesions of Cl neurons or their pathways abolish vasodepressor reflexes from baroreceptors and vagal afferents. In contrast, noradrenergic neurons of the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the Al group, project rostrally to innervate, in part, vasopressin neurons of the hypothalamus. Stimulation of Al neurons lowers AP, while lesions or GABA elevates it. We propose that Cl neurons comprise the so-called tonic vasomotor center of the brain stem and also mediate, via a projection from the NTS, the vasodepressor limb of baroreflexes. The NTS-C1 projection may be GABAergic.",
keywords = "Adrenaline neurons, Adrenergic, Baroreceptor reflexes, Blood pressure, Noradrenergic neurons, Nucleus of the tractus solitaries",
author = "Reis, {Donald J.} and Granata, {Antonio R.} and Joh, {Tong H.} and Ross, {Christopher A} and Ruggiero, {David A.} and Park, {Dong H.}",
year = "1984",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "7--15",
journal = "Hypertension",
issn = "0194-911X",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Brain Stem Catecholamine Mechanisms in Tonic and Reflex Control of Blood Pressure

AU - Reis, Donald J.

AU - Granata, Antonio R.

AU - Joh, Tong H.

AU - Ross, Christopher A

AU - Ruggiero, David A.

AU - Park, Dong H.

PY - 1984

Y1 - 1984

N2 - Neurons of the lower brain stem maintain resting levels of arterial pressure (AP), mediate reflex responses from cardiopulmonary receptors, and are an important site of the hypotensive actions of a2-adrenergic agonists. Details of the pathways and transmitters that mediate tonic and reflex control of AP are emerging. Afferent fibers of cardiopulmonary receptors in the ninth and tenth nerves terminate bilaterally in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). Although some neurons contain substance P, the primary neurotransmitter appears to be the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate (L-glu). Neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla, which most probably comprise the Cl group of epinephrine neurons, are also critical in AP control. Cl neurons project to innervate cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord. Stimulation of the Cl area electrically or with L-glu increases AP, while lesions or local injection of the inhibitory amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) lowers AP to levels comparable to spinal cord transection. Lesions of Cl neurons or their pathways abolish vasodepressor reflexes from baroreceptors and vagal afferents. In contrast, noradrenergic neurons of the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the Al group, project rostrally to innervate, in part, vasopressin neurons of the hypothalamus. Stimulation of Al neurons lowers AP, while lesions or GABA elevates it. We propose that Cl neurons comprise the so-called tonic vasomotor center of the brain stem and also mediate, via a projection from the NTS, the vasodepressor limb of baroreflexes. The NTS-C1 projection may be GABAergic.

AB - Neurons of the lower brain stem maintain resting levels of arterial pressure (AP), mediate reflex responses from cardiopulmonary receptors, and are an important site of the hypotensive actions of a2-adrenergic agonists. Details of the pathways and transmitters that mediate tonic and reflex control of AP are emerging. Afferent fibers of cardiopulmonary receptors in the ninth and tenth nerves terminate bilaterally in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). Although some neurons contain substance P, the primary neurotransmitter appears to be the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate (L-glu). Neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla, which most probably comprise the Cl group of epinephrine neurons, are also critical in AP control. Cl neurons project to innervate cholinergic preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord. Stimulation of the Cl area electrically or with L-glu increases AP, while lesions or local injection of the inhibitory amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) lowers AP to levels comparable to spinal cord transection. Lesions of Cl neurons or their pathways abolish vasodepressor reflexes from baroreceptors and vagal afferents. In contrast, noradrenergic neurons of the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the Al group, project rostrally to innervate, in part, vasopressin neurons of the hypothalamus. Stimulation of Al neurons lowers AP, while lesions or GABA elevates it. We propose that Cl neurons comprise the so-called tonic vasomotor center of the brain stem and also mediate, via a projection from the NTS, the vasodepressor limb of baroreflexes. The NTS-C1 projection may be GABAergic.

KW - Adrenaline neurons

KW - Adrenergic

KW - Baroreceptor reflexes

KW - Blood pressure

KW - Noradrenergic neurons

KW - Nucleus of the tractus solitaries

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021680114&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021680114&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 6150001

AN - SCOPUS:0021680114

VL - 6

SP - 7

EP - 15

JO - Hypertension

JF - Hypertension

SN - 0194-911X

IS - 5

ER -