Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a secreted glycophosphoprotein normally restricted in expression to skeletal tissue that is also induced by multiple neoplasms in vivo. Previous work has shown that BSP can bind to matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Because of MMP-2 activity in promoting tumor progression, potential therapeutic inhibitors were developed, but clinical trials have been disappointing. The effect of BSP on MMP-2 modulation by inhibitors was determined with purified components and in cell culture. Enzyme inhibition kinetics were studied using a low-molecular weight freely diffusable substrate and purified MMP-2, BSP, and natural (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2) and synthetic (ilomastat and oleoyl-N-hydroxylamide) inhibitors. We determined parameters of enzyme kinetics by varying substrate concentrations at different fixed inhibitor concentrations added to MMP-2 alone, MMP-2 and BSP, or preformed MMP-2-BSP complexes and solving a general linear mixed inhibition rate equation with a global curve fitting program. Two in vitro angiogenesis model systems employing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to follow BSP modulation of MMP-2 inhibition and tubule formation. The presence of BSP increased the competitive KI values between 15- and 47-fold for natural and synthetic inhibitors. The extent of tubule formation by HUVECs cocultured with dermal fibroblasts was reduced in the presence of inhibitors, while the addition of BSP restored vessel formation. A second HUVEC culture system demonstrated that tubule formation by cells expressing BSP could be inhibited by an activity blocking antibody against MMP-2. BSP modulation of MMP-2 activity and inhibition may define its biological role in promoting tumor progression.
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