Most studies evaluating BMD in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations have focused on antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced patients. In this study, the association between HIV-1 and/or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and BMD among untreated HIV-1–infected women in a resource-limited setting was assessed before long-term exposure to ART. The data were then compared with that of the 2005–2008 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for non-Hispanic White and Black women. Women aged 18–35 years, recruited from health facilities in Kampala, Uganda, were classified based on their combination of HIV-1 status and DMPA use: (i) HIV-1–infected current DMPA users, (ii) HIV-1–infected previous DMPA users, (iii) HIV-1–infected nonhormonal-contraceptive users, and (iv) HIV-uninfected nonhormonal-contraceptive users. All HIV-1–infected women reported being ART-naïve at baseline. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck using DXA. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between HIV-1 and/or DMPA and BMD Z-scores. Baseline data were analyzed for 452 HIV-1–infected (220 nonhormonal users, and 177 current and 55 previous DMPA users) and 69 HIV-1–uninfected nonhormonal-contraceptive users. The mean age was 26.1 years (SD, 4.2) with a median duration of DMPA use among current users of 24.0 months [medians (interquartile range), 12-48]. A higher proportion of HIV-1–infected previous (12.7%) or current DMPA users (20.3%) and nonhormonal users (15.0%) had low BMD (Z-score ≤−2 at any of the three sites) compared with age-matched HIV-1–uninfected women (2.9%). HIV-1 infection and DMPA use were independently associated with significantly lower mean BMD Z-scores at all sites, with the greatest difference being among HIV-1–infected current DMPA users (5.6%–8.0%) versus uninfected nonhormonal users. Compared with non-Hispanic White and Black women, the Ugandan local reference population had generally lower mean BMD at all sites. Newer treatment interventions are needed to mitigate BMD loss in HIV-1–infected women in resource-limited settings.
- ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY-NAÏVE
- BONE MINERAL DENSITY
- DEPOT MEDROXYPROGESTERONE ACETATE
- HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine