Body size, body proportions, and mobility in the Tyrolean "Iceman"

Christopher B Ruff, Brigitte M. Holt, Vladimir Sládek, Margit Berner, William A. Murphy, Dieter zur Nedden, Horst Seidler, Wolfgang Recheis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Body mass and structural properties of the femoral and tibial midshafts of the "Iceman," a late Neolithic (5200 BP) mummy found in the Tyrolean Alps, are determined from computed tomographic scans of his body, and compared with those of a sample of 139 males spanning the European early Upper Paleolithic through the Bronze Age. Two methods, based on femoral head breadth and estimated stature/bi-iliac (pelvic) breath, yield identical body-mass estimates of 61 kg for the Iceman. In combination with his estimated stature of 158 cm, this indicates a short but relatively wide or stocky body compared to our total sample. His femur is about average in strength compared to our late Neolithic (Eneolithic) males, but his tibia is well above average. His femur also shows adaptations for his relatively broad body (mediolateral strengthening), while his tibia shows adaptations for high mobility over rough terrain (anteroposterior strengthening). In many respects, his tibia more closely resembles those of European Mesolithic rather than Neolithic males, which may reflect a more mobile lifestyle than was characteristic of most Neolithic males, perhaps related to a pastoral subsistence strategy. There are indications that mobility in general declined between the European Mesolithic and late Neolithic, and that body size and shape may have become more variable throughout the continent following the Upper Paleolithic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-101
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Human Evolution
Volume51
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2006

Fingerprint

body size
tibia
thighs
Mesolithic
femur
Paleolithic
body mass
anthropometric measurements
bronze
body shape
lifestyle
subsistence
Alps
sampling
indication
methodology

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • Body mass
  • European prehistory
  • Femur
  • Tibia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Ruff, C. B., Holt, B. M., Sládek, V., Berner, M., Murphy, W. A., zur Nedden, D., ... Recheis, W. (2006). Body size, body proportions, and mobility in the Tyrolean "Iceman". Journal of Human Evolution, 51(1), 91-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.001

Body size, body proportions, and mobility in the Tyrolean "Iceman". / Ruff, Christopher B; Holt, Brigitte M.; Sládek, Vladimir; Berner, Margit; Murphy, William A.; zur Nedden, Dieter; Seidler, Horst; Recheis, Wolfgang.

In: Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 51, No. 1, 07.2006, p. 91-101.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ruff, CB, Holt, BM, Sládek, V, Berner, M, Murphy, WA, zur Nedden, D, Seidler, H & Recheis, W 2006, 'Body size, body proportions, and mobility in the Tyrolean "Iceman"', Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 91-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2006.02.001
Ruff, Christopher B ; Holt, Brigitte M. ; Sládek, Vladimir ; Berner, Margit ; Murphy, William A. ; zur Nedden, Dieter ; Seidler, Horst ; Recheis, Wolfgang. / Body size, body proportions, and mobility in the Tyrolean "Iceman". In: Journal of Human Evolution. 2006 ; Vol. 51, No. 1. pp. 91-101.
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