Fat and metabolic abnormalities and their associated factors in HIV-infected patients in Thailand were examined. Body fat and fasting lipids (total cholesterol, TC; triglyceride, TG; and HDL-cholesterol, HDL-c) were evaluated in 247 HIV-infected Thais. Body fat was evaluated by subjects and blinded observers, and measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for analyses. Antiretroviral (ARV)-treated Thais were significantly older, more likely to be male, and had higher education and income compared to untreated subjects. The prevalence of lipoatrophy was 10.3% in ARV-naive patients, 36.7% in patients receiving non-protease inhibitor (PI)-based ARV, and 78.7% in PI-based ARV-treated patients (p < 0.001). Excess abdominal or neck fat was found in 0.8%, 6.7%, and 24.6% of the naive, non-PI-treated, and PI-treated, respectively (p < 0.001). Hypercholesterolemia (TC ≥ 240 mg/dl) was found in 4.8%, 26.6%, and 42.6%; hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 150 mg/dl) in 8.2%, 48.3%, and 75.4%; and low HDL-c (HDL-c < 40 mg/dl) in 42.9%, 20.0%, and 31.2% of the naive, non-PI treated, and PI-treated, respectively (p < 0.05 for all). Central to peripheral fat ratios were 1.11 ± 0.03, 1.45 ± 0.06, and 1.93 ± 0.08 for the naive, non-PI, and PI-treated, respectively (p < 0.001). Treatment was associated with abnormal fat. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of lipoatrophy for excess fat were 4.6 (2.0-10.7); 6.3 (0.6-71.1) for ARV-naive vs. non-PI; 5.6 (3.4-9.1); 10.7 (3.4-33.8) for ARV-naive vs. PI, and 5.7 (2.4-13.9); 5.3 (1.2-11.4-13.9) for ARV-naive vs. PI. ARV-associated metabolic abnormalities are common in this non-Western population. Appropriate selection and monitoring of ARV treatment are critical to minimize the risk of long-term complications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases