Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis: Comparison with vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1β-mediated breakdown

Jose D. Luna, Chi Chao Chan, Nancy L. Derevjanik, Jeremy Mahlow, Charlie Chiu, Bo Peng, Takao Tobe, Peter A. Campochiaro, Stanley A. Vinores

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) induced in Lewis rats by immunization with S-antigen is a model of human uveitis. By using immunocytochemical staining for albumin, relatively minor blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown was initially shown in the peripheral retina 8 days after immunization and in the posterior retina by 10 days. Albumin extravasation appeared to occur by opening of the retinal vascular endothelial (RVE) and the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) tight junctions, by transendothelial vesicular transport, and by permeating damaged RVE cells. Each of three anti-inflammatory agents reduced or delayed autoimmune- mediated cell destruction but did not eliminate any particular route of extravasation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-1(β) (IL-1(β)) are intimately associated with the development of EAU and are capable of causing BRB dysfunction. A high percentage of RVE tight junctions appeared open ultrastructurally after intravitreal injection of VEGF (26.7%), TNFα (35.6%), or IL-1(β) (22.1%) compared with saline-injected control (11.4%) or normal, untreated rabbits (4.1%). Heat treatment abolished the effect of IL-1(β) on the BRB but only partially reduced the effect of VEGF. By 24 hr after injection, the effect of TNFα had reversed, but that of IL-1(β) had not; VEGF-mediated BRB dysfunction was partially reversible. In addition, albumin-filled vesicle- like structures were seen in the RVE cytoplasm following treatment with each mediator. This study shows that VEGF, TNFα, and IL-1(β) each cause BRB breakdown by opening tight junctions between RVE cells and possibly by increasing transendothelial vesicular transport. Each of these agents may contribute to BRB breakdown in EAU and in patients with uveitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)268-280
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of neuroscience research
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 1997

Keywords

  • Autoimmune disease
  • Cyclosporine
  • Dexamethasone
  • Growth factors
  • Inflammatory mediators
  • Thromboxane synthetase
  • Vesicular transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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