Kidney stone disease is highly prevalent, has a rising incidence, and a high recurrence rate. Stone events greatly impact quality of life of patients and pose a great financial burden on society. Over several decades, the surgical treatment of stone disease has advanced significantly. While surgical technique has evolved, evidence demonstrates medical therapy decreases stone recurrence rates and prevention should not be overshadowed by surgical advances. A thorough metabolic evaluation of stone formers helps guide therapy for prevention. Herein we review the specific blood and urine tests that can be done in stone formers to identify specific treatable metabolic abnormalities.
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