Blocking immune checkpoints in prostate, kidney, and urothelial cancer: An overview

Angela K B Alme, Beerinder S. Karir, Bishoy M. Faltas, Charles G. Drake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Despite a long history of immunotherapeutic approaches to treatment, most genitourinary malignancies are not cured by existing immunotherapy regimens. More recently, cell surface molecules known as immune checkpoints have become the focus of efforts to develop more effective immunotherapies. Interactions between these molecules and their ligands inhibit the proliferation and function of tumor-specific lymphocytes. A monoclonal antibody blocking 1 of these checkpoints was approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and is now being tested in other malignancies. The objective responses seen in these early trials of checkpoint blockade are driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy. There are several ongoing and planned trials in genitourinary malignancies of single-agent inhibitors, as well as combinations targeting multiple checkpoints or adding other types of therapies to checkpoint blockade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-181
Number of pages11
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Bladder cancer
  • CTLA-4
  • Kidney cancer
  • LAG-3
  • PD-1
  • PD-L1
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Blocking immune checkpoints in prostate, kidney, and urothelial cancer: An overview'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this