Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) frequently produces metastases to the musculoskeletal system that are a major source of morbidity in the form of pain, immobilization, fractures, neurological compromise, and a decreased ability to perform activities of daily living. Patients with metastatic RCC therefore have a dismal prognosis because there is no effective adjuvant treatment for this disease. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signaling cascade is important in the growth and metastasis of RCC, its blockade has been hypothesized to inhibit tumor growth and hence prevent resultant bone destruction. We determined whether blockade of EGF-R by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKI 166 inhibited the growth of RCC in bone. We use a novel cell line, RBM1-IT4, established from a human RCC bone metastasis. Protein and mRNA expression of the ligands and receptors was assessed by Western and Northern blots. The stimulation of RBM1-IT4 cells with epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor a resulted in increased cellular proliferation and tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation. PKI 166 prevented these effects. First, RBM1-IT4 cells were implanted into the tibia of nude mice, where they established lytic, progressively growing lesions, after which the mice were treated with PKI 166 alone or in combination with paclitaxel (Taxol). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in control mice expressed activated EGF-R. Treatment of mice with PKI 166 alone or in combination with Taxol produced a significant decrease in the incidence and size of bone lesions as compared with the results in control or Taxol-treated mice (P < 0.001). Treatment with PKI 166 also decreased the expression of phosphorylated EGF-R by tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells, and this was even more pronounced with PKI 166 plus Taxol treatment. The PKI 166 plus Taxol combination produced apoptosis of tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Tumor cell proliferation, shown by proliferating cell nuclear antigen positivity, was decreased in all treatment groups. In addition, the integrity of the bone was maintained in mice treated with PKI 166 or PKI 166 plus Taxol, whereas massive bone destruction was seen in control and Taxol-treated mice. These results suggest that blockade of EGF-R signaling inhibits growth of RCC in the bone by its effect on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - Jun 1 2003|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research