We introduce a fast block-iterative maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction algorithm and apply it to four-dimensional reconstruction of gated SPECT perfusion studies. The new algorithm, called RBI-MAP, is based on the rescaled block iterative EM (RBI-EM) algorithm. We develop RBI-MAP based on similarities between the RBI-EM, ML-EM and MAPEM algorithms. RBI-MAP requires far fewer iterations than MAP-EM, and so should result in acceleration similar to that obtained from using RBI-EM or OS-EM as opposed to ML-EM. When complex four-dimensional clique structures are used in the prior, however, evaluation of the smoothing prior dominates the processing time. We show that a simple scheme for updating the prior term in the heart region only for RBI-MAP results in savings in processing time of a factor of six over MAP-EM. The RBI-MAP algorithm incorporating 3D collimator-detector response compensation is demonstrated on a simulated Tc gated perfusion study. Results of RBI-MAP am compared with RBI-EM followed by a 4D linear filter. For the simulated study, we find that RBI-MAP provides consistently higher defect contrast for a given degree of noise smoothing than does filtered RBI-EM. This is an indication that RBI-MAP smoothing does less to degrade resolution gained from 3D detector response compensation than does a linear filter. We conclude that RBI-MAP can provide smooth four-dimensional reconstructions with good visualization of heart structures in clinically realistic processing times.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging