Objectives: Toconfirm interrater reliability using blinded evaluation of a skills-assessment instrument to assess the surgical performance of resident and fellow trainees performing pediatric direct laryngoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy in simulated models. Design: Prospective, paired, blinded observational validation study. Subjects: Paired observers from multiple institutions simultaneously evaluated residents and fellows who were performing surgery in an animal laboratory or using high-fidelity manikins. The evaluators had no previous affiliation with the residents and fellows and did not know their year of training. Interventions: One- and 2-page versions of an objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) assessment instrument composed of global and a taskspecific surgical items were used to evaluate surgical performance. Results: Fifty-two evaluations were completed by 17 attending evaluators. The instrument agreement for the 2-page assessment was 71.4% when measured as a binary variable (ie, competent vs not competent) (κ = 0.38; P =.08). Evaluation as a continuous variable revealed a 42.9% percentage agreement (κ =0.18; P =.14). The intraclass correlation was 0.53, considered substantial/good interrater reliability (69% reliable). For the 1-page instrument, agreement was 77.4% when measured as a binary variable (κ = 0.53, P =. 0015). Agreement when evaluated as a continuous measure was 71.0% (κ =0.54, P <.001). The intraclass correlation was 0.73, considered high interrater reliability (85% reliable). Conclusions: The OSATS assessment instrument is an effective tool for evaluating surgical performance among trainees with acceptable interrater reliability in a simulator setting. Reliability was good for both the 1- and 2-page OSATS checklists, and both serve as excellent tools to provide immediate formative feedback on operational competency.
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