Purpose To report clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients with venous malformations (VMs) treated with bleomycin foam. Materials and Methods Twenty patients (age, 2-68 y) presented with symptoms of swelling (n = 19; 95%), pain (n = 14; 70%), and bleeding (n = 4; 20%). Lesions were located in the head and neck in 17 patients (85%), extremities in two (10%), and mediastinum in one (5%). Twenty-seven embolizations were performed, with a mean of 1.7 ± 1.0 treatments per patient (range, 1-4). An average of 0.45 ± 0.4 U/kg of bleomycin foam was used per procedure, with a range of 0.1-2.3 U/kg. Results All procedures were technically successful with no intraprocedural complications. Mean follow-up was 66 days ± 80, with a range of 4-403 days. Postprocedure complications were minor in 6 of 27 procedures (22%) and major in 2 of 27 procedures (7%). All 20 patients (100%) reported improvement in their symptoms after a single treatment session. Postprocedural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated volume reduction of treated lesions in 13 of 14 patients (93%), with a mean lesion volume reduction of 66% ± 21. Enhancement on MR imaging after treatment was decreased in 11 of 14 patients (79%), increased in two (14%), and stable in one (7%). T2 signal intensity on MR imaging after treatment was decreased in 12 of 14 patients (86%) and stable in two (14%). Conclusions The use of bleomycin foam for the percutaneous treatment of VMs is safe and effective. Foaming bleomycin may be used to address the dose limitations of the liquid.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine