Bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex

Michael Ludwig, Bonnie Ching, Heiko Reutter, Simeon A. Boyadjiev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


The bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) represents an anterior midline defect with variable expression comprising a spectrum of anomalies involving the abdominal wall, pelvis, urinary tract, genitalia, and occasionally the spine and anus. The vast majority of BEEC cases are classified as non-syndromic and the etiology of this malformation is still unknown. This review presents the current state of knowledge on this multifactorial disorder, including historical retrospect, phenotypic and anatomical characterization, epidemiology, proposed developmental mechanisms, existing animal models, and implicated genetic and environmental components. These published lines of evidence argue strongly that BEEC occurs as a result of strong genetic predisposition that is yet to be deciphered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)509-522
Number of pages14
JournalBirth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2009


  • Animal model
  • Bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex
  • Genetics
  • Multifactorial
  • OEIS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology


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