We have developed bipolar suction electrodes (BSEs) for surface electromyography (EMG) of the pharynx and esophagus. Construction techniques are described, and procedures for recording from the upper esophagus, cricopharyngeus, and pharyngeal constrictors are explained. Sample EMG recordings are presented. Advantages of this new technique, including simple verification of placement, analysis by surface recording, and minimal pain, are discussed.
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