Biotechnological production of gluconic acid: Future implications

Om V. Singh, Raj Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

110 Scopus citations


Gluconic acid (GA) is a multifunctional carbonic acid regarded as a bulk chemical in the food, feed, beverage, textile, pharmaceutical, and construction industries. The favored production process is submerged fermentation by Aspergillus niger utilizing glucose as a major carbohydrate source, which accompanied product yield of 98%. However, use of GA and its derivatives is currently restricted because of high prices: about US$ 1.20-8.50/kg. Advancements in biotechnology such as screening of microorganisms, immobilization techniques, and modifications in fermentation process for continuous fermentation, including genetic engineering programmes, could lead to cost-effective production of GA. Among alternative carbohydrate sources, sugarcane molasses, grape must show highest GA yield of 95.8%, and banana must may assist reducing the overall cost of GA production. These methodologies would open new markets and increase applications of GA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-722
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Alternative carbohydrate sources
  • Biotechnology
  • Gluconic acid
  • Glucose oxidase
  • Microbial fermentation
  • System biology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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