Biomedical findings from NASA’s project mercury: A case series

William R. Carpentier, John B. Charles, Mark J Shelhamer, Amanda S. Hackler, Tracy L. Johnson, Catherine M.M. Domingo, Jeffrey P. Sutton, Graham B.I. Scott, Virginia E. Wotring

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The United States first sent humans into space during six flights of Project Mercury from May 1961 to May 1963. These flights were brief, with durations ranging from about 15 min to just over 34 h. A primary purpose of the project was to determine if humans could perform meaningful tasks while in space. This was supported by a series of biomedical measurements on each astronaut before, during (when feasible), and after flight to document the effects of exposure to the spaceflight environment. While almost all of the data presented here have been published in technical reports, this is the first integrated summary of the main results. One unexpected finding emerges: the major physiological changes associated with these short-term spaceflights are correlated more strongly with time spent by the astronaut in a spacesuit than with time spent in space per se. Thus, exposure to the direct stressors of short-duration (up to 34 h) spaceflight was not the dominant factor influencing human health and performance. This is relevant to current spaceflight programs and especially to upcoming commercial flights in which time spent in space (as on a suborbital flight) will be minor compared to the time spent in associated preparation, ascent, and return.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6
Journalnpj Microgravity
Volume4
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

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Mercury project
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Space Flight
space flight
Human engineering
Mercury
mercury
NASA
flight
Health
Astronauts
Space Suits
astronauts
suborbital flight
duration
ascent
human health
health
project

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Carpentier, W. R., Charles, J. B., Shelhamer, M. J., Hackler, A. S., Johnson, T. L., Domingo, C. M. M., ... Wotring, V. E. (2018). Biomedical findings from NASA’s project mercury: A case series. npj Microgravity, 4(1), [6]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-018-0040-5

Biomedical findings from NASA’s project mercury : A case series. / Carpentier, William R.; Charles, John B.; Shelhamer, Mark J; Hackler, Amanda S.; Johnson, Tracy L.; Domingo, Catherine M.M.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.; Scott, Graham B.I.; Wotring, Virginia E.

In: npj Microgravity, Vol. 4, No. 1, 6, 01.12.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carpentier, WR, Charles, JB, Shelhamer, MJ, Hackler, AS, Johnson, TL, Domingo, CMM, Sutton, JP, Scott, GBI & Wotring, VE 2018, 'Biomedical findings from NASA’s project mercury: A case series', npj Microgravity, vol. 4, no. 1, 6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-018-0040-5
Carpentier WR, Charles JB, Shelhamer MJ, Hackler AS, Johnson TL, Domingo CMM et al. Biomedical findings from NASA’s project mercury: A case series. npj Microgravity. 2018 Dec 1;4(1). 6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-018-0040-5
Carpentier, William R. ; Charles, John B. ; Shelhamer, Mark J ; Hackler, Amanda S. ; Johnson, Tracy L. ; Domingo, Catherine M.M. ; Sutton, Jeffrey P. ; Scott, Graham B.I. ; Wotring, Virginia E. / Biomedical findings from NASA’s project mercury : A case series. In: npj Microgravity. 2018 ; Vol. 4, No. 1.
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