Biomarkers of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease

William R. Zhang, Chirag R. Parikh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The current unidimensional paradigm of kidney disease detection is incompatible with the complexity and heterogeneity of renal pathology. The diagnosis of kidney disease has largely focused on glomerular filtration, while assessment of kidney tubular health has notably been absent. Following insult, the kidney tubular cells undergo a cascade of cellular responses that result in the production and accumulation of low-molecular-weight proteins in the urine and systemic circulation. Modern advancements in molecular analysis and proteomics have allowed the identification and quantification of these proteins as biomarkers for assessing and characterizing kidney diseases. In this review, we highlight promising biomarkers of kidney tubular health that have strong underpinnings in the pathophysiology of kidney disease. These biomarkers have been applied to various specific clinical settings from the spectrum of acute to chronic kidney diseases, demonstrating the potential to improve patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-333
Number of pages25
JournalAnnual review of physiology
StatePublished - Feb 10 2019


  • AKI
  • CKD
  • acute kidney injury
  • biomarkers
  • chronic kidney disease
  • kidney

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology


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