Knowledge of the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) has improved greatly in recent years. Nevertheless, this disease still causes high morbidity and mortality in the Western world. In particular, there have been many advancements in our understanding, treatment and prophylaxis of CHF in recent years, yet the incidence of this disease continues to rise. Due to the staggering numbers of patients afflicted, CHF is becoming the most expensive burden on the health care system. The relationship between the deterioration of cardiac function and ongoing ischemic events has not been fully investigated and could conceivably be both monitored and modulated via various biomarkers. Recent data also indicate that heart failure is associated with altered hemostasis, i.e. a prothrombotic state which can lead to complications arising from occlusive and/or thromboembolic phenomena. Although the incidence of overt and clinically apparent thrombotic events is low, it is possible that subclinical events contribute to the increasing morbidity and mortality from this disease. These subclinical events may include silent ischemic events or microinfarcts which are being recognized as contributing to the progression of heart failure. As far as nonpharmacologic approaches to heart failure are concerned, the use of uniform exercise training regimens in heart failure is still a very controversial topic. Before more definitive recommendations can be made regarding the justification of such procedures, further large-scale studies investigating the effects of physical exercise on the development and progression of heart failure are needed. Furthermore, these studies must have sufficient statistical power to detect effects on clinical outcomes, specifically mortality. The purpose of this review article is to bridge the gap between biomarkers, exercise training and heart failure by discussing our current knowledge of different markers of platelet activation, thrombin generation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial necrosis in CHF patients undertaking physical exercise.
- Exercise training
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine