Biology of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are the most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. They are characterized by prominent age-related neurodegeneration in selectively vulnerable neural systems. Some forms of AD, PD, and ALS are inherited, and genes causing these diseases have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of the neuronal degeneration in these familial diseases, and in the more common idiopathic (sporadic) diseases, are unresolved. Genetic, biochemical, and morphological analyses of human AD, PD, and ALS, as well as their cell and animal models, reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The varied functions and properties of mitochondria might render subsets of selectively vulnerable neurons intrinsically susceptible to cellular aging and stress and the overlying genetic variations. In AD, alterations in enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial binding of Aβ and amyloid precursor protein have been reported. In PD, mutations in mitochondrial proteins have been identified and mitochondrial DNA mutations have been found in neurons in the substantia nigra. In ALS, changes occur in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and mitochondrial programmed cell death proteins. Transgenic mouse models of human neurodegenerative disease are beginning to reveal possible principles governing the biology of selective neuronal vulnerability that implicate mitochondria and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This chapter reviews several aspects of mitochondrial biology and how mitochondrial pathobiology might contribute to the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD, PD, and ALS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)355-415
Number of pages61
JournalProgress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Volume107
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Parkinson Disease
Alzheimer Disease
Mitochondria
Serum Amyloid A Protein
Mitochondrial Proteins
Neurons
Mutation
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
Cell Aging
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Substantia Nigra
Enzymes
Electron Transport
Mitochondrial DNA
Transgenic Mice
Molecular Biology
Animal Models

Keywords

  • Adenine nucleotide translocator
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell death
  • Cyclophilin D
  • Excitotoxicity
  • Keywords
  • Mitochondrial permeability transition pore
  • Motor neuron
  • ppif
  • Voltage-dependent anion channel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Molecular Medicine

Cite this

Biology of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases. / Martin, Lee J.

In: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, Vol. 107, 2012, p. 355-415.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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