Bioavailability of sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: Results of a short-term, cross-over clinical trial in Qidong, China

Patricia A. Egner, Jian Guo Chen, Jin Bing Wang, Yan Wu, Yan Sun, Jian Hua Lu, Jian Zhu, Yong Hui Zhang, Yong Sheng Chen, Marlin D. Friesen, Lisa P. Jacobson, Alvaro Muñoz, Derek Ng, Geng Sun Qian, Yuan Rong Zhu, Tao Yang Chen, Nigel P. Botting, Qingzhi Zhang, Jed W. Fahey, Paul TalalayJohn D. Groopman, Thomas W. Kensler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

One of several challenges in design of clinical chemoprevention trials is the selection of the dose, formulation, and dose schedule of the intervention agent. Therefore, a cross-over clinical trial was undertaken to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of sulforaphane from two of broccoli sprout - derived beverages: one glucoraphanin-rich (GRR) and the other sulforaphane-rich (SFR). Sulforaphane was generated from glucoraphanin contained in GRR by gut microflora or formed by treatment of GRR with myrosinase from daikon (Raphanus sativus) sprouts to provide SFR. Fifty healthy, eligible participants were requested to refrain from crucifer consumption and randomized into two treatment arms. The study design was as follows: 5-day run-in period, 7-day administration of beverages, 5-day washout period, and 7-day administration of the opposite intervention. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure levels of glucoraphanin, sulforaphane, and sulforaphane thiol conjugates in urine samples collected daily throughout the study. Bioavailability, as measured by urinary excretion of sulforaphane and its metabolites (in approximately 12-hour collections after dosing), was substantially greater with the SFR (mean = 70%) than with GRR (mean = 5%) beverages. Interindividual variability in excretion was considerably lower with SFR than with GRR beverage. Elimination rates were considerably slower with GRR, allowing for achievement of steady-state dosing as opposed to bolus dosing with SFR. Optimal dosing formulations in future studies should consider blends of sulforaphane and glucoraphanin as SFR and GRR mixtures to achieve peak concentrations for activation of some targets and prolonged inhibition of others implicated in the protective actions of sulforaphane.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)384-395
Number of pages12
JournalCancer Prevention Research
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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