Microvascular endothelial cells from rat and guinea pig fat pads were shown to bind diamine oxidase (DAO) activity when incubated with soluble extracts of placenta (33 DAO U/mg of placenta) and a purified placental enzyme preparation (94 U/μg of protein). The extent of binding was dependent on the concentration of enzyme activity and tissue. Saturation of binding sites with 5,000 U of DAO/ml resulted in levels of bound activity (up to 11-13 U/mg of endothelial cells) in excess of that observed in all tissues except placenta. Scatchard plots suggested that there were at least two DAO binding sites (apparent K(m) 92 and 2,450 U/ml). Although the same cell preparations bound 125I-labeled lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the presence of LPL on the endothelial cell surface did not interfere with the binding of DAO activity except when cells were exposed to high concentrations of LPL. Alternatively, bound DAO activity was partially displaced (up to 33%) only with high concentrations (30 μg/ml) of LPL. DAO activity may thus be bound to at least two populations of sites, one of which may bind LPL. Both enzymes, however, were displaced by heparin (0.05-5 U/ml) and DAO binding was impaired by prior treatment of cells with proteolytic and glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes. The demonstration of DAO binding to vascular endothelial cells provides a further example of the ability of these cells to bind enzymes at their surface and thereby act on biologically active substances in the circulation.
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