Beyond the limits of present active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) for diagnostic radiology

Larry E. Antonuk, Youcef El-Mohri, Kyung Wook Jee, Manat Maolinbay, Samer C. Nassif, Xiujiang Rong, Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, Qihua Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


A theoretical cascaded systems analysis of the performance limits of x-ray imagers based on thin-film, active matrix flat-panel technology is presented. This analysis specifically focuses upon an examination of the functional dependence of the detective quantum efficiency on exposure. While the DQE of AMFPI systems is relatively high at the large exposure levels associated with radiographic x-ray imaging, there is a significant decline in DQE with decreasing exposure over the medium and lower end of the exposure range associated with fluoroscopic imaging. This fall-off in DQE originates from the relatively large size of the additive noise of AMFPI systems compared to their overall system gain. Therefore, strategies to diminish additive noise and increase system gain should significantly improve performance. Potential strategies for noise reduction include the use of charge compensation lines while strategies for gain enhancement include continuous photodiodes, pixel amplification structures, or higher gain converters. The effect of the implementation of such strategies is examined for a variety of hypothetical imager configurations. Through the modeling of these configurations, such enhancements are shown to hold the potential of making low frequency DQE response large and essentially independent of exposure while greatly reducing the fall-off in DQE at higher spatial frequencies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)518-527
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Issue numberII
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of the 1999 Medical Imaging - Physics of Medical Imaging - San Diego, CA, USA
Duration: Feb 21 1999Feb 23 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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