Objectives: This paper examined whether nebivolol protects the heart via nitric oxide (NO) synthase and NO-dependent signaling in an in vivo model of acute myocardial infarction. Background: Beta 3-adrenergic receptor (AR) activation promotes endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO bioavailability. We hypothesized that specific beta 3-AR agonists would attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury via eNOS activation and increased NO bioavailability. Methods: Mice were subjected to 45 min of myocardial ischemia in vivo followed by 24 h of reperfusion (R). Nebivolol (500 ng/kg), CL 316243 (1 μg/kg), BRL-37344 (1 μg/kg), or vehicle (VEH) was administered at the time of R. Myocardial area-at-risk (AAR) and infarct size (INF)/AAR was measured at 24 h of R. Cardiac tissue and plasma were collected to evaluate eNOS phosphorylation, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and nitrite and nitrosothiol levels. Results: Nebivolol (500 ng/kg) reduced INF/AAR by 37% (p < 0.001 vs. VEH) and serum troponin-I levels from 41 ± 4 ng/ml to 25 ± 4 ng/ml (p < 0.05 vs. VEH). CL 316243 and BRL-37344 reduced INF by 39% and 42%, respectively (p < 0.001 vs. VEH). Nebivolol and CL 316243 increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 (p < 0.05 vs. VEH) and increased nitrite and total nitrosylated protein levels. Nebivolol and CL 316243 significantly increased myocardial nNOS expression. Nebivolol failed to reduce INF after MI/R in beta 3-AR -/-, eNOS -/-, and in nNOS -/- mice. Conclusions: Our results indicate that beta 3-AR agonists protect against MI/R injury. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of beta 3-AR agonists are mediated by rapid eNOS and nNOS activation and increased NO bioavailability.
- beta adrenergic receptor
- cardiac ischemia
- endothelial nitric oxide synthase
- neuronal nitric oxide synthase
- nitric oxide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine