Best practices for extractables and leachables in orally inhaled and nasal drug products: An overview of the PQRI recommendations

Daniel L. Norwood, Diane Paskiet, Michael Ruberto, Thomas Feinberg, Alan Schroeder, Guirag Poochikian, Qingxi Wang, Tian Jing Deng, Fran Degrazio, Melinda K. Munos, Lee M. Nagao

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


The Product Quality Research Institute Leachables and Extractables Working Group includes pharmaceutical development scientists representing industry, government, and academia. The Working Group was created and constituted to address scientific and regulatory questions concerning the pharmaceutical development process for Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products (OINDP) related to organic extractables and leachables. This effort has resulted in the creation of a detailed "Recommendation Document", which was submitted to the U.S. FDA for consideration in September 2006. The recommendations include proposed safety and analytical thresholds for leachables and extractables, as well as detailed "best practice" recommendations for various aspects of the OINDP pharmaceutical development process, including: materials selection for OINDP container closure system components, Controlled Extraction Studies, Leachables Studies, and Routine Extractables Testing. The Working Group's processes and the detailed and comprehensive recommendations that resulted from those processes, demonstrate that the Product Quality Research Institute collaborative process can result in consensus science-based and data driven recommendations that could have a positive effect on patient care. It is anticipated that the Working Group's recommendations will also contribute to the new "Quality by Design" pharmaceutical development paradigm. This commentary summarizes the best practice recommendations within the context of an overall pharmaceutical development process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)727-739
Number of pages13
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Controlled extraction studies
  • Leachables
  • PQRI
  • Pharmaceutical development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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