Behavioral risk assessment for infectious diseases (BRAID): Self-report instrument to assess injection and noninjection risk behaviors in substance users

Kelly E. Dunn, Frederick S. Barrett, Evan S. Herrmann, Jennifer G. Plebani, Stacey C. Sigmon, Matthew W. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background Infectious diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C are a significant problem among substance abusers. Current risk behavior measures [e.g., HIV Risk Taking Behaviour Scale (HRBS) and Risk Assessment Battery (RAB)] were developed for injection drug users and do not include newly identified risks or noninjection drug use behaviors. This study developed and provided initial, internal validation of the Behavioral Risk Assessment for Infectious Diseases (BRAID) to assess infectious disease risk behaviors among alcohol and other drug users. Methods A self-report measure was developed from literature regarding risk behaviors. Participants (total N = 998) with alcohol/substance use disorder completed the measure in 2 phases to establish initial psychometric validity. Results Phase 1 (N = 270) completed 65 self-report questions; factor analysis revealed a 12-item solution with 5 factors (Unprotected Sex with Risky Partners, Injection Use, Sex on Cocaine/Crack, Condom Availability, and Intranasal Drug Use). Infectious disease history was positively associated with Injection Use (Sample 1) and Unprotected Sex with Risky Partners (Sample 2) and negatively associated with Intranasal Drug Use (Samples 1 and 2). Phase 2 (N = 728) added additional injection-related items and confirmed the factor structure of the existing BRAID. Conclusions The BRAID is a 5-factor, 14-item self-report measure of past 6 month risk behaviors that is composed of noninjection and injection risk behaviors and was psychometrically confirmed. Though additional external (convergent/divergent) validation is needed, this report provides preliminary support for the use of the BRAID to assess infectious disease risk in substance users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-75
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Volume168
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

Keywords

  • BRAID
  • Drug use disorder
  • HIV
  • Injection
  • Noninjection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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