Purpose: Angiogenesis is thought to depend on a net balance of molecules that inhibit or stimulate microvascular endothelial cells. A variety of molecules that affect angiogenesis are induced locally by the administration of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for superficial bladder cancer. We sought to determine whether BCG-induced urinary cytokines alter the effects of patient urine on assays of angiogenic activity. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing BCG treatment provided urine samples before and at peak cytokine production times after BCG instillation. Fifty-four urine samples from 8 patients were analyzed by ELISA for a panel of molecules known to affect angiogenesis, and tested for angiogenic activity in human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC) proliferation and migration assays. To assess the role of specific BCG-induced cytokines, urinary HDMEC proliferation assays were repeated in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP- 10), and/or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Results: Urinary IFN-γ, IP-10, TNF- α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were induced to nanogram/ml amounts by BCG treatment. While pre-BCG treatment urine samples minimally stimulated microvascular endothelial cell proliferation (+ 9%), post-BCG treatment urine became progressively inhibitory to endothelial cells (to - 85%, p = 0.005) during weekly treatment courses. Neutralizing antibodies to TNF-α or to IP-10, either alone or in combination, greatly reduced this inhibitory effect. Conclusions: Intravesical BCG induces a cytokine-rich urinary microenvironment that is inhibitory to human endothelial cells. Urinary cytokine profiles and assays of angiogenic inhibition may provide prognostically important information regarding BCG treatment outcomes.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Urology|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2000|
- Endothelial cells
- Urinary cytokines
ASJC Scopus subject areas