Eighty-two women were assigned at random to either an estrogen, progestogen, estrogen-progestogen combination, or to a placebo taken orally three of four weeks for 12 cycles. All patients were fitted with an intrauterine device to prevent pregnancy. Urine cultures were obtained prior to study and at monthly intervals thereafter, and the cumulative incidence of acquired infection was calculated for all patients who stayed in the study for at least three months. The acquired bacteriuria incidence was: placebo 14.3 per cent, estrogen 15.8 per cent, estrogen-progestogen 18.7 per cent, and progestogen 35.7 per cent. The increased incidence with progestogen may be secondary to the production of a menopausal hormonal milieu, a common time for bacteriuria to occur in the female.
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