Bacteriologie de la tuberculose et des infections mycobacteries non tuberculeuses

Translated title of the contribution: Bacteriology of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria

B. Wyplosz, C. Truffot-Pernot, J. Robert, V. Jarlier, J. Grosset

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Changing incidence and nature of mycobacterial infections subsequent to the historical regression of tuberculosis and the acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, as well as the development of new technical tools for molecular biology, have profoundly modified the methods used for the bacteriological diagnosis of mycobacteria infections. Although microscopic search for acid-fast bacilli, culture and antibiotic resistance tests on Lowenstein-Jensen medium remain the reference methods, more rapid and sophisticated methods are now available. Culture on radiolabeled media using the Bactec system has shortened the delay for positive culture and interpretable antibiotic sensitivity tests. Molecular techniques allow: 1) rapid identification of the most frequently isolated mycobacteria strains, including the most frequent laboratory contaminant M. gordonae, with genome probes; 2) genome typing of M. tuberculosis strains to trace interhuman transmission, detect recurrence or exogenous reinfection or demonstrate laboratory contamination; 3) rapid detection of rifampicin resistance; and 4) direct detection of M. tuberculosis and M. avium in pathological specimens. The role of mycobacteria in the environment causing opportunistic infections, atypical mycobacteria or non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM), particularly the aviaire complex, has grown considerably. Isolation and identification relies on methods used to detect bacilli as well as blood cultures and analysis of fecal matter. NTM are naturally resistant to most of the antituberculosis antibiotics but are sometimes sensitive to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones or new macrolides.

Translated title of the contributionBacteriology of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria
Original languageFrench
Pages (from-to)5S33-5S48
JournalRevue des maladies respiratoires
Volume14
Issue numberSUPPL. 5
StatePublished - Dec 1 1997

Keywords

  • Atypical mycobacteria
  • Bacteriology
  • M. tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterioses
  • Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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