Awareness, prevalence, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes in a semi-urban area of Nepal: Findings from a cross-sectional study conducted as a part of COBIN-D trial

Bishal Gyawali, Martin Rune Hassan Hansen, Mia Buhl Povlsen, Dinesh Neupane, Peter Krogh Andersen, Craig Steven McLachlan, Annelli Sandbæk, Abhinav Vaidya, Per Kallestrup

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Abstract

Background Type 2 diabetes is an escalating public health problem in Nepal. The current study aims to assess the prevalence, associated factors, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes in a semi-urban area of Nepal. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted including 2,310 adults aged 25 years or above from a semi-urban area of Lekhnath Municipality of Nepal, during October 2016 to April 2017 using the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPS approach. Data on demographics, behavioral risk factors, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist and hip circumference), and fasting blood glucose were collected by face-to-face interviews during a door-to-door visit. Participants were considered to have type 2 diabetes if they had previously been diagnosed by a physician and/or were on antidiabetic medications and/or had fasting blood glucose 7.0 mmol/L. Participants were classified as being aware of their diabetes conditions if they had earlier been told that they had type 2 diabetes. Treatment of diabetes among those aware was if participants received any kind of medication treatment or counseling, and control of diabetes among those treated was defined as fasting blood glucose level was <7.0 mmol/L. Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used to determine the strength of association. Results The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 11.7% (95% CI: 10.5–13.1). Among type 2 diabetes participants, 65% were aware of their disease, 94% of those who were aware received treatment, and 21% of the treated subjects had their diabetes under control. Factors significantly associated with type 2 diabetes were older age (OR = 3.2 for age group 45–54 years, OR = 3.8 for age group 55–64 years), Janajati ethnicity (OR = 1.4), abdominal obesity (OR = 2.3), being overweight or obese (OR = 1.4), and hypertension (OR = 2.0), while protective factors included being a female (OR = 0.4), medium physical activity (OR = 0.3), high physical activity (OR = 0.2), and not having family history of diabetes (OR = 0.3). Conclusions The study revealed a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes among adults. Older age, male gender, Janajati ethnicity, abdominal obesity, overweight or obesity, hypertension, low physical activity, and family history of diabetes were associated with type 2 diabetes. Immediate public health and individual measures are warranted to reduce further burden of type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0206491
JournalPloS one
Volume13
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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